AI to improve cataract surgery in the Global South

While the adequate surgical treatment of cataract is guaranteed in high-income countries, the surgical results in the Global South are often inadequate. Video recording can be used to analyze possible surgical errors, improve training and demonstrably optimize surgical results. However, this has been very time-consuming up to now. There are now promising approaches to automating surgical video analysis using artificial intelligence (AI). However, no deep learning algorithms have yet been developed for video analysis of the surgical method commonly used in countries of the Global South. Researchers from the University Hospital Bonn, the University of Bonn, the Sankara Eye Foundation India and Microsoft Research India want to change this and develop a corresponding algorithm. The aim is to improve the results of cataract surgery in the Global South in the long term. As a first important step, they have compiled an overview of previous AI approaches for analyzing cataract surgeries. The results have now been published in Translational Vision Science and Technology (TVST).

Günter Mayer Awarded an ERC Advanced Grant

Which signaling pathways are disrupted by the development of tumors and how can they be addressed effectively? Professor Günter Mayer from the LIMES Institute at the University of Bonn is investigating these questions. The researcher has been awarded a coveted Advanced Grant from the European Research Council (ERC) for this project. The European Union is providing some €2.5 million in funding over the next five years.

The White House Embattled

How will transnational relations be affected based on who wins the battle for the White House this coming November? This is the question to be illuminated from various perspectives in an upcoming lecture series organized by the University of Bonn North American Studies Program in partnership with Amerika Haus NRW, the Federal Agency for Civic Education (bpb) and the German-Canadian Centre (DKG). The first of these talks will be held in Bonn on April 16 at 6 pm in the Rabinstraße 8 building, seminar room 8.

Strong Showing for the University of Bonn

The University of Bonn did very well in the QS World University rankings released yesterday, being amongst the top 100 worldwide in roughly a third of the ranked Subjects. Mathematics is again our highest-ranking subject (41st internationally, 1st in Germany).

Navigation software supports kidney research

Many kidney diseases are manifested by protein in the urine. However, until now it was not possible to determine whether the protein excretion is caused by only a few, but severely damaged, or by many moderately damaged of the millions of small kidney filters, known as glomeruli. Researchers at the University Hospital Bonn, in cooperation with mathematicians from the University of Bonn, have developed a new computer method to clarify this question experimentally. The results of their work have now been published as an article in press in the leading kidney research journal "Kidney International".

Do some mysterious bones belong to gigantic ichthyosaurs?

Several similar large, fossilized bone fragments have been discovered in various regions across Western and Central Europe since the 19th century. The animal group to which they belonged is still the subject of much debate to this day. A study carried out at the University of Bonn could now settle this dispute once and for all: The microstructure of the fossils indicates that they come from the lower jaw of a gigantic ichthyosaur. These animals could reach 25 to 30 meters in length, a similar size to the modern blue whale. The results have now been published in the journal PeerJ.

Nudging in a virtual supermarket for more animal welfare

It may be possible to change the purchasing behavior of consumers noticeably using some simple strategies. At least this is what a study, carried out by the University of Bonn and the Technical University of Munich, indicates. The researchers investigated the effect of nudging on the sale of products produced with high animal welfare standards in a virtual supermarket. Nudges are gentle prods or pushes designed to promote certain behaviors – such as placing some products in more visible positions. In the experiment, the participants in the nudging group selected products produced with high animal welfare standards about twice as frequently as the control group. The extent to which these results can be transferred to real purchasing decisions is still unclear. The study has now been published in the journal “Appetite.”

Research Studying Research

In what ways do evaluation and reward systems influence the conduct and results of research studies? This is the question addressed by Dr. Oliver Braganza of the University of Bonn and University Hospital Bonn, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Utrecht, the University of Duisburg-Essen and colleagues from the University of Bonn. Titled “The cultural evolution of scientific practice—from simulation to experimentation,” the project is to receive around 1.8 million euros in funding from the Volkswagen Foundation over the next four years.

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